The world is infinitely complex because there are an infinite number of variables that can affect any given outcome. In order to make decisions or take actions, we all rely on various beliefs or theories about “how the world works.” These beliefs can be based on our personal experience, on the information we’ve received from others, or on what we’ve read or heard. They may be based on our own observations, or on scientific evidence. But no matter how solid our beliefs may seem, they’re always subject to change. We can never be sure that all the variables we’ve taken into account are actually relevant, or that we’re applying the right approach when trying to solve a problem.
The theories of international politics or international public relations cannot offer exactly a precise plan of action that is guaranteed to succeed because their focus is on the international system as a whole, not on specific countries or events. They can provide insights into how various factors might interact, but ultimately it is up to individual countries and their leaders to make decisions based on their own interests. This can lead to unpredictability, as different actors pursue their own agendas in a complex and rapidly changing environment. In addition, events can quickly change the dynamics of a situation and make predictions difficult or impossible.
Realism and Liberalism
In the case of Ukraine-Russia war, realism is vindicated as it predicted the escalation of the crisis. Liberalism has been found wanting as it could not foresee how Putin would react to sanctions.
Realism is the belief that states are the most important actors in international affairs, and that war is a natural state of affairs in the international system. States are motivated by self-interest, and the international system is anarchic, meaning that there is no higher authority that can enforce the order. As a result, states must rely on their own capabilities to ensure their security.
Liberalism is the belief that international institutions and cooperation can help to promote peace and stability. States are motivated by self-interest, but they also have a sense of responsibility to their citizens and society as a whole. Liberalism believes that states can work together to create an international order that is based on norms and rules rather than force.
The Ukraine-Russia war can be seen as a clash between two variants of realism: the “hard” version, which sees Russia as a great power with legitimate interests in Ukraine, and the “soft” version
All realist theories depict a World that which no other state or institution can intervene to protect any nation, and all states show a proactive approach and predict any aggression that might threaten their sovereignty and security might threaten them at any time in the future. This type of situation put states in a situation – especially great powers – to get engaged in thrashing potential risks and compete for powers. The phenomena sometimes can sometimes lead stat heads to do some horrible things.
The realists approach in Russia’s invasion case (not mentioning the U.S. invasion of Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, and continuous threats to Iran in the case) is an example that shows the great powers can act in terrible make sure their interests are safe. The Ukraine-Russia war is an example of how realism and liberalism can clash in complex ways. The conflict can be seen as a way for the West to assert its hegemony over the rest of the world. Alternatively, it can be seen as an example of how realism predicts that states will get engaged in conflicts and compete for power. Additionally, it can be seen as an example of how liberalism sees Russia as a victim of Western aggression. Overall, the conflict demonstrates how different theories can clash in complex ways and how these clashes can have major implications for international politics.
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