Structure of COVID-19 – How does it get into Human Body? | Scholarly article

Structure of COVID-19

To understand the Structure of COVID-19, let’s first look at the little background of its origin.

Coronavirus-2 was originated in Wuhan, a smaller city in the Hubei Province of China. It then spread to the other parts of the world, and in March 2020, it was declared a pandemic by WHO.

The Structure of COVID-19 is consist of various protein enzymes. These are namely, Spike Glycoprotein or S-Protein, Positive-Sense RNA Strand and N (Nucleus) Protein, Envelope, M or Membrane Protein, E or Envelope Protein.

Structure of COVID-19

As you may see in the picture above, how the whole structure of COVID-19 looks and the breakdown of its elements.

Spike Glycoprotein or S-Protein

The S-Protein is the main and most important part of COVID-19 structure, it is the part that actually binds with the ACE-2 (Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2) Receptor present in the Lungs, Heart, Kidney, and Intestines of the Human Body. Without the presence of S-Protein in the Structure of COVID-19, the virus could not enter the cell and cause any harm to the human body.

RNA and N (Nucleus) Protein

COVID-19 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, that is the reason, it acts as a messenger RNA (mRNA) that can penetrate directly into the cells and cells machinery (Ribosomes) start its synthesizes. Inside the Envelope, It contains single Stranded RNA and N-Proteins.


The envelope is the coating of the virus structure. Inside the Envelope, the RNA and N-Protein are present, whereas other protein is present on the upper surface of the Envelope.


M-Protein or Membrane Protein binds the Structure of COVID-19 and it is also been used in virus replication according to various studies.


E-Protein or Envelope Protein is the smallest part of the structure of COVID-19. It also binds the COVID-19 structure and is also involved in the replication and pathogenesis of the virus.


How COVID-19 gets into Human Body?

COVID-19 is associated with SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) which is why it enters and binds with ACE-2 Receptor present in the Alveoli, a smaller structure inside the lungs, where lungs and blood vessels exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. The ACE-2 receptor is present on the Type-2 Pneumocyte Cells inside the Alveoli.

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The COVID-19 virus enters the Respiratory system, passes through the Trachea, Bronchi, bronchioles and gets inside the Alveoli. There it binds with the ACE-2 Receptor and penetrates inside the Type-2 Pneumocyte Cells. When the virus enters into the Pneumocyte Cells, the Ribosomes start the protein and RNA Synthesis and releases the viral proteins and Negative Sense RNA Strand inside the nucleus. RNA then encodes the RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase – enzyme that replicates the Positive Sense RNA Strand by using the Negative sense RNA Strand as a template, Viral Protein binds with the RNA Strands and assembles into the virus particle and releases back inside the Alveoli. Just like this, millions of COVID-Particles assemble and enters the Alveoli.


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